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Obstructive respiratory diseases

Obstructive respiratory disease means narrowing of the airways. In case of these types of diseases exhaling becomes difficult, its duration is longer and a whistling-whirling sound can be heard above the lung. Shortness of breath is frequent, which is experienced in severe cases not only on straining but at rest as well. Besides these torturing cough and incidentally expectoration may occur.

 

COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

In the background of the COPD smoking and chronic bronchitis resulting from smoking may stand. Its characteristic symptom is the persistent cough that lasts at least for 3 months -or for a longer time existing-annually.
In case of COPD the bronchoconstriction does not react to medications, usually it is non-reversible.

 

Bronchoconstriction

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by different impacts, for example different agents that trigger allergy (allergens: pollen, animal hair, food, certain heavy metals), irritative gases, heavy physical straining, inhaling cold air, thick fog, viral respiratory infections, reflux of gastric acid, certain medications (for instance: NSAIDs), psychological factors. The bronchial constriction ceases spontaneously or for drug therapy so it is reversible.

 

Pulmonary fibrosis

Symptoms of the pulmonary fibrosis are: dyspnea that results from straining at the beginning, but later it is also present at rest, dry cough, fatigue. During the course of the disease the oxygen level in blood decreases and in severe cases respiratory failure may develop.

Several diseases may result in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. In the lung an inflammatory process is in progress, and as a result of this normal lung tissue is replaced by connective tissue. This connective tissue is thick, scarred, rigid thus the lung loses its expansiveness. Normally gas exchange goes easily, oxygen and carbon-dioxide permeate rapidly and freely through the wall of alveoli and the surrounding small vessels. In case of fibrosis connective tissue intrudes between the vessel and the wall of the alveolus, thus gas exchange slows down significantly and becomes difficult. Oxygen level of the blood decreases and in advanced cases carbon-dioxide level increases and the patient will be suffocating.

For the diagnosis of diseases with airway obstruction or constriction dynamic inhalation lung scintigraphy can be used.

 

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES:

Dynamic inhalation lung scintigraphy

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